CASS Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Read More.

CASS Response to COVID-19 Pandemic

Posted on Sun, May 3, 2020 By:
Posted in: SLT Update

CASS Senior Leadership is closely monitoring the situation with respect to the rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic and following the recommendations of Alberta Health Services, Health Canada, and the World Health Organization.

While the risk in Alberta remains low at this time, the risk is rising and the situation is very fluid. CASS is taking significant measures to ensure the safety of all clients and staff and to slow the potential transmission of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in order to reduce the strain on our health care systems and promote the well-being of all Calgarians.

The CASS Senior Leadership is meeting regularly to stay up to date on this rapidly evolving situation and to to ensure that all program areas, staff, and clients are full supported. In addition to meeting with each other, we are also in regular contact with our funders, participating in a weekly zoom meeting with the Calgary Service Provider Council, meeting every other week with Assistant Deputy Ministers John Stinson and Jason Chance, and participating in provincial Town Halls with Chief Medical Officer of Health Dr. Dina Hinshaw and the Minister of Community and Social Services Rajan Sawhney when the opportunities arise

December 29th 2021 Update – CASS Main Office Returning to Stage 1 of Re-Opening Plan, Expanded Use of Rapid Tests and Availability of KN95 Face Masks.

Effective Tuesday January 4th, 2022 until Tuesday February 1st, 2022. On February 1, 2022 CASS Senior Leadership Team will meet and re-assess the state of affairs in order to decide on how to proceed at that time.

Stage 1 is as follows:

CASS Main Office exterior doors remain locked during business hours and only CASS senior leadership and administration staff have access to the building.

All other staff that typically operate out of the CASS Main Office will work remotely at this time.

Both senior leadership and administration team members coordinate to limit their presence on site to the extent possible.

Access to the CASS Main Office by staff other than senior leadership and administration will be by appointment only and will be coordinated with an agency Director.

Additionally, CASS will expand the use of Rapid Antigen Tests across additional program areas and begin expanding the availability of KN95 masks for staff.

Individual program areas will modify operations to mitigate the risk of exposure and transmission of COVID-19.

December 21st 2021 Update – CASS COVID-19 Immunization Policy Status:

We are extremely grateful to all of our staff for supporting CASS in meeting the requirements of our COVID-19 Immunization Policy. Below is a break down of the status of all active CASS staff as it relates to immunization status:

  • 93.1% of active staff (257 individuals) have provided proof of having received two or more vaccine doses and either are, or will be, fully immunized by January 4th 2022
  • 2.8% of active staff (8 individuals) have been granted extensions after providing proof of having received their first dose but were unable to get the second dose by the deadline following a change to the recommended interval between doses. These individuals will join the fully immunized group soon.
  • 1.4% of active staff (4 individuals) have approved accommodation requests based on protected grounds
  • 2.5% of active staff (7 individuals) have declined to provide proof of vaccination and will be placed on an unpaid leave of absence, or receive termination notice regarding their contracts on January 4th 2022 (consequently removing them from the population of active staff)

All new hires going forward as of November 15th 2021 are required to provide proof of full immunization by their first day of work.

By February 2022 we expect to have 98.6% of all active staff fully immunized against COVID-19.

In those cases where an accommodation request was approved, an accommodation plan has been developed that implements extra measures to help ensure the safety of the individuals for whom the accommodation was granted, their colleagues, and the individuals they support. Accommodation plans will be reviewed on a regular basis to ensure they are meeting the objectives set out.

Our COVID-19 Immunization Policy is more necessary than ever, as we must continue to do everything we can to protect the vulnerable population that we serve and to keep our agency, programs, and teams strong against the highly-transmissible Omicron variant.

CASS is implementing a Rapid Testing program in various aspects of our operations. Some program areas are further along with this than others. In the meantime, CASS staff may book an appointment with in order to have a rapid test completed at the CASS Main Office on Monday and Thursday mornings.

Booster shots are now available to all Albertans 18 years of age or older, book yours today if you haven’t already!

November 26th 2021 Update:

As part of our ongoing engagement with all CASS Community members on the subject of vaccination for COVID-19, we are proud to announce that CASS will be hosting a virtual town hall for CASS staff with Community Outreach Manager Margaret Pateman, and Dr. Jia Hu from 19 to Zero ( next week on Thursday December 2nd from 7:30pm to 8:30pm.

Margaret Pateman is a recent Masters of Public Health graduate from Western University, now working with 19 To Zero as the manager of community outreach and education as well as working with the University of Calgary building vaccine curriculum for Medical, Pharmacy and Nursing students.

Dr. Jia Hu is the Primary Care Vaccine Rollout Lead at the Alberta Medical Association, a Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Calgary, the Chair and co-founder of 19 To Zero, and a family physician. He also works at the East Calgary Health Centre, an inner-city family medicine practice serving marginalized populations. Dr. Jia Hu is also a former medical officer of health for Alberta Health Services in the Calgary Zone.

Ms. Pateman will provide a presentation off the top followed by a question and answer session. If time allows, members of the CASS Senior Leadership Team will also be present to answer questions regarding the CASS mandatory vaccination policy.

A recording of this Town Hall event can be found here:

November 24th 2021 Update:

The CASS Main Office has returned to ‘Stage 3’ of our re-opening plan as described in the ‘CASS Main Office COVID-19 Safety Protocols’ document. i.e. the doors to the CASS Main Office will remain locked and only staff that regularly operate out of the CASS Main Office will have access to that space while strictly adhering to the established ‘A’ and ‘B’ Team schedules so as to limit the risk associated with a potential exposure event.

Access to the CASS Main Office by any CASS staff that do not typically work out of that space, and/or CASS clients will be by appointment only.

While we recognize that we are not out of the woods yet with COVID-19, the CASS Senior Leadership Team appreciates the importance to the mental health and productivity of staff to be able to access this shared workspace. With that in mind we feel that a cautious approach to re-opening is in everyone’s best interests.

Access to the CASS Main Office at this time will require either proof of full immunization for COVID-19, or a negative Rapid Anti-gen Screening Test completed within the last 72 hours. On a trial basis, CASS Reception will be available to provide Rapid Screening tests to staff free of charge on Mondays and Thursdays from 08:00 to 11:00 and also on an as needed basis.

Please note that vaccinated staff members are also welcome to participate in our Rapid Screening program as vaccination is not 100% effective in preventing infection with, or transmission of, the coronavirus.

November 4th 2021 Update:

Today CASS published an update to our Policy and Procedures Manual that introduced a new policy requiring all CASS staff (inclusive of employees, sub-contractors, volunteers, interns and practicum students) to be fully immunized against COVID-19 no later than January 4th 2022.

‘Fully Immunized’ means having received all doses for a vaccine schedule approved by Health Canada, and two weeks having elapsed.

Staff have until December 19th 2021 to provide accurate and verifiable proof of immunization to CASS Human Resources.

Staff that require an accommodation may request one via the submission of a CASS Mandatory Vaccination Accommodation Form.

All new hires will be fully immunized effective November 15th 2021.

October 25th 2021 Update:

CASS has submitted an application with the Government of Alberta in order to be provided with COVID-19 Rapid Anti-gen Test Kits.

That application was successful and we have received the test kits requested.

CASS Directors will begin rolling out our ‘CASS Covid-19 Asymptomatic Rapid Screening Plan’ to various locations shortly starting with Stepping Stone Manor, Langin Place, and one of our Overnight Staffed Residences. That plan can be access by CASS staff on the Forms and Documents page of

We will take the opportunity to learn from this phased in approach as to how the plan and it’s deployment can be improved upon before rolling it out to other locations.

Rapid Testing for COVID-19 reflects a point in time result and individuals who test negative are still required to adhere to all safety protocols such as physical distancing when possible, use of PPE, sanitization etc.

If you are interested in seeing Rapid Testing implemented at your work site, please speak with your supervisor.

September 15th 2021 Update:

In the face of rising numbers of COVID-19 during the fourth wave of the pandemic, the CASS Senior Leadership Team decided together to return to stage 1 of our CASS Main Office building access plan (with a few exceptions for specific individuals with some specific needs) effective Monday, September 20th until further notice. Exceptions may apply for new hires, individuals mentoring new hires, or others with an identified operational requirement to be on site at the CASS Main Office. Please check with your supervisor if you are unsure if an exception should apply to you.

Stage 1 is as follows:

  • CASS Main Office exterior doors remain locked during business hours and only CASS senior leadership, administration staff, and program coordinators have access to the building.
  • All other staff that typically operate out of the CASS Main Office will work remotely at this time.
  • Senior leadership, program coordinators, and administration team members coordinate to limit their presence on site to the extent possible.
  • Access to the CASS Main Office by staff other than senior leadership, administration, and program coordinators will be by appointment only and will be coordinated with an agency Director.

We understand how important it is for people to be able to meet and work together in person, but at this time with active and surging cases of Covid-19 in Alberta, we believe that this is the most prudent course of action.

We are hopeful that the tide will turn and that numbers will start to improve soon and that we will be in a position to re-open our doors in some limited capacity before long.

June 1st 2021 Update:

Effective June 14, we will advance to stage 3 of the CASS Main Office re-opening plan as described in the CASS Main Office Safety Protocols for Covid-19 document.

This change will be contingent on the Government of Alberta entering stage 2 of it’s re-opening plan which is expected to occur on June 11th. At that point, the requirement for those who are able to, to work from home, will be lifted.

While we are excited for the prospect of a return to normal, the CASS Senior Leadership Team feels strongly that a gradual approach to easing restrictions is warranted. We will continue to assess the situation and advance to stages 4 and 5 of our CASS Main Office re-opening plan as we feel is appropriate.

Stage 3 of the CASS Main Office Opening Plan is as follows:

  1. CASS Main Office exterior doors remain locked during business hours and only CASS staff that operate out of the CASS Main Office have access to the building.
  2. Staff from each program area are divided into sub-teams ex: Team A and Team B. Staff from Team A cannot be on-site at the same time as staff from Team B (and vice versa) within a given program area.
  3. Access to the CASS Main Office by individuals other than those that work out of the CASS Main Office will be by appointment only and will be coordinated with a CASS office staff member.
  4. All modifications and safety protocols at the CASS Main Office remain in effect during stage 3. including but not limited to:
    • screening questionnaires required for all individuals on site
    • masks required when not at a workspace and/or when physical distancing is not possible
    • enhanced sanitization schedule
    • designated entrances and exits
    • single occupancy washrooms
    • one-way hallways and stairwells
    • all non-essential shared resources have been removed (ex: cups, utensils, glasses etc.)

April 20th 2021 Update:

Please see the following post for information about covid-19 vaccines as it relates to the disability services sector in Alberta:

December 10th 2020 Update:

Following the announcement from the Government of Alberta on December 8th, the CASS Main Office will return to Phase One of our re-opening strategy until at least January 12, 2021 at which point we will re-assess the situation:

  • We will not be hosting any classes or clients on site at the CASS Main Office
  • All office staff with the exception of the Senior Leadership Team, and the Admin Team will be working remotely
  • Members of the Senior Leadership Team and Admin Team will also be working remotely to the extent possible
  • CASS Office staff will remain available via email and their CASS Main Office phone extensions which will route incoming calls to their cell phones

Supervisors will be in contact with program staff in the event that program operations are affected by the new public health measures. 

Calgary Alternative Support Services will continue Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) distribution from the CASS Main Office over the holiday season, with a minor change in dates.  If you require PPE and are unable to make it on one of the pick-up days identified below, please connect with your supervisor.  The upcoming dates are as follows:

  • Friday, December 11, 2020 – 10:00 am to 1:00 pm
  • Monday, December 14, 2020 – 10:00 am to 1:00 pm
  • Wednesday, December 23, 2020 – 10:00 am to 1:00 pm
  • Tuesday, December 29, 2020 – 10:00 am to 1:00 pm

You can find the most recently announced public health measures from the Government of Alberta here:

November 17th Update:

The physical portion of Non-Violent Crisis Prevention and Intervention (CPI) training has been suspended until further notice.

CPI continues to be mandatory training for all staff. Staff will still be able to complete the online portion of their training and obtain their blue certification card, however, that card will come with an asterisk stating that the physical component has not been completed. Staff will be required to complete the physical component once we begin offering that service again in the future.

November 12th Update:

As a result of the recent increase in new and active covid-19 cases in the Calgary area, CASS has enacted additional safety measures including mandating continuous masking and use of goggles while providing direct support and additional precautions during meal times at Overnight Staffed Residences.

Staff that recently returned to work out of the CASS Main Office were informed that their presence there is once again at their discretion. We continue to enforce segregation of staff into separate groups whose attendance is scheduled such that members of separate groups will never be on site at the same time so as to minimize the impact of a prospective exposure event.

September 28th Update:

Effective September 14th staff that typically operate out of the CASS Main Office have returned to the office on a staggered schedule that limits the number of people on site at any given time and reduces the threat posed to staff by a potential exposure event. The doors remain locked and CASS is not currently accepting clients at the CASS Main Office. All visits by anyone that doesn’t typically work out of the CASS Main Office are by appointment only at this time. Reception is once again answering the phone and directing incoming calls.

Effective September 11th 2020 The CASS Main Office Covid-19 Safety Protocols document was updated to version 1.1. Updates Include but are not limited to:

  • A new section about maintaining physical distance when possible
  • A new section stipulating that face masks are required at the CASS Main Office when not at personal workstations or when unable to maintain physical distance
  • A new section on the removal of all shared non-essential resources (ex: cups, utensils, sugar, creamer etc.)
  • A new section regarding meeting room use and sanitization protocols
  • A new section about incoming mail delivery processing protocols
  • An update to meeting host responsibilities
  • Updates to protocols described in Stages 3 and 4 of office re-opening.

Effective September 25th The CASS Pandemic Plan was updated to version 1.4. Updates include but are not limited to:

  • Updates to the training section to reflect new staff training requirements
  • An all new client transport protocol
  • A new section on how to safely and effectively use bleach as a disinfectant
  • Updates to the screening protocol
  • A new section about getting to and from work safely

Effective September 25th 2020 The CASS Covid-19 Screening Questionnaire was updated to version 1.3.

June 29th Update: – CASS Main Office Covid-19 Safety Protocols Document Published

The CASS Senior Leadership Team, in collaboration with the CASS Health & Safety Committee have developed the ‘CASS Main Office Covid-19 Safety Protocols’ document which is available on the CASS File Server and also on the Forms and Documents page of the CASS website after logging in.

The ‘CASS Main Office Covid-19 Safety Protocols’ document is a companion document to the CASS Pandemic Plan, and describes the various precautions that have been implemented to ensure that the CASS Main Office continues to be a safe work site as we begin to welcome back more staff to the CASS Main Office, and eventually, clients and visitors.

June 4th Update: – New Training, All Core Mandatory Training Available, Hiring Freeze Lifted

  • All CASS employees have been assigned Covid-19 Employee Health and Safety Training via
  • CASS is now offering Abuse Awareness Training and Challenging Behaviours II training as self-directed online courses.
  • CASS is resuming our Non-Violent Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training (CPI) courses in late June in a hybrid online and in-classroom training model that will reduce the amount of time spent in class.
  • First Aid trainers have started offering in-classroom training once more. Check for a list of Government of Alberta approved First Aid trainers
  • Because staff are once again able to meet all core training requirements, and we are now able to complete recruitment and orientation remotely, we are lifting our hiring freeze effective immediately

May 4th Update: – Government of Alberta Updates

May 3rd Update: – ABTraceTogether App

  • The Government of Alberta has launched the new ABTraceTogether App for smartphones.
    • The app is designed to help AHS staff conduct contact tracing work by logging any time a phone with the app is in close proximity with any other phone that has the app installed using Bluetooth.
    • In the event that an individual tests positive for covid-19, that individual can choose to share the log of contacts created by the app.
    • The CASS Senior Leadership Team believes that this app is likely to be of great value in helping to combat the spread of covid-19 and does an adequate job of protecting privacy and confidentiality. As such we encourage everyone to install and use this app on their smartphones.

May 1st Update: – Pandemic Plan Updated to V1.3, PPE Training Available

  • While we are excited to hear the re-launch strategy shared by the Government of Alberta yesterday, CASS will not implement any re-opening strategies at this time. Until further notice, CASS will continue with it’s current COVID -19 protocols and practices.
  • The CASS Pandemic Plan (available for staff on the forms and document page of this website after logging in) was updated to version 1.3 with additional information added regarding:
    • Covid-19 itself
    • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Sanitization
    • a series of info-graphics from Alberta Health Services
  • Optional training on Personal Protective Equipment has been assigned to all employees

April 26th Update:

April 24th Update:

  • The Government of Alberta has started supplying service providers with masks which has put CASS in a position to provide masks to our subcontracted Support Home Providers and Supportive Neighbours (where required). Subcontractors should contact their CASS Coordinator to coordinate distribution.

April 20th Update – Media Relations & Additional Optional Training Assigned to all Frontline Staff:

  • CASS Senior Leadership continues to work on the following:
    • Procuring Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) from a number of sources in order to ensure that our supply remains sufficient for the duration of this pandemic
    • Updating our Pandemic Plan to provide additional details where there is opportunity to do so
    • Applying for grants through the Family and Community Support Services (FCSS) program, the Calgary Homeless Foundation, and the Mental Health and Addiction COVID-19 Community Funding grant in order to address unanticipated costs and community needs related to the covid-19 pandemic
    • day to day operations, including year end & contract submissions
  • The CASS Senior Leadership Team requests that all media inquiries be forward to the CASS Senior Leadership Team so that they can be addressed by the appropriate Director
  • Optional training for Safe Food Handling and Medication Administration has been assigned to all frontline staff and Coordinators as a proactive measure to improve staff portability across program areas and positions in order to help ensure continuity of care for the the individuals we support who are most vulnerable.

April 8th Update – CASS Pandemic Plan Update to V1.2:

  • The CASS Senior Leadership Team published version 1.2 of the CASS Pandemic Plan which includes the following updates:
    • program modifications for all program areas
    • a section on PPE including instructions on how to apply and remove PPE
    • information for our Overnight Staffed Residences, Langin Place and Stepping Stone Manor about how to access the specialized online self-assessment tool for essential services staff
    • information on how to report an outbreak
    • Information on a new screening protocol and tool and more

April 3rd Update – Pandemic Plan Updated to V1.1, Essential Service Designation Letter Issued, Expense Claims Paid via EFT, Med Admin Proficiency Tests Available Remotely:

  • The CASS Senior Leadership Team published an updated version of our Pandemic Plan which has been tailored to specifically address the Covid-19 Pandemic. The most current version of this plan is available for staff on the Forms and Documents page of the CASS website after logging in. This plan should be considered a living document and additional updates should be expected in the coming days and weeks.
  • All agency staff were provided with a letter signed by our Executive Director Stacy Schikowsky for staff to keep with them to demonstrate that their role with CASS is considered to be an essential service as defined by the Government of Alberta (see March 31st Update Re: Essential Services Designation Below)
  • Effective today, all Expense Claim payments will be issued via Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
  • Medication Administration proficiency tests can now be completed remotely

April 2nd Update – Child Care Spaces Expanded to all Staff Designated as an Essential Service:

  • On April 1st the Government of Alberta provided an update to indicate that the child care spaces that were opened up for AHS staff and first responders have had their eligibility expanded to include all staff that fall under the recently defined list of Essential Services. If CASS staff require child care, you are encouraged to learn more about this opportunity by viewing the Government of Alberta’s web page about expanded child care spaces for essential services.

March 31st Update – Essential Services Designation and Agency-Wide Video-Conferencing Meetings:

  • On March 30th the Government of Alberta published its list of Essential Services which includes disability support staff. This is an important development in the event the government moves to any make further restrictions.
  • Last week the Government of Alberta announced new requirements for all licensed homes. CASS Overnight Staffed Residences are not licensed as they do not have 4 or more individuals living in them, however, CASS will be incorporating many of the requirements that were imposed on licensed homes for our Overnight Staffed Residences.
  • The CASS Senior Leadership Team has invited all agency staff to participate in agency-wide video-conferencing meetings and question and answer sessions which will be held every other week on Tuesdays alternating between morning and evening. The next agency-wide meeting will be held on Tuesday April 28th. Minutes from these meetings are shared with all agency staff via email.

March 27th Update – CASS Main Office Closed, Infection Prevention and Control Training Assigned to all Staff:

  • Effective April 1st the CASS Main Office is closed to all guests and staff excluding the CASS Senior Leadership Team and administrative staff. Senior Leadership and admin staff are encouraged to work from home to the extent that they are able to but may work from the CASS Main Office as required.
  • All CASS staff have been assigned ‘Infection Prevention and Control’ as mandatory training.
  • Incoming calls will be addressed by our auto-attendant. CASS Main Office staff remain available via the main office phone extensions via call routing.

Enhancing Sanitation Measures

All CASS worksites (the CASS Main Office, Creative Community Living Activities, Stepping Stone Manor, Langin Place and our Overnight Staffed Residences) have all had their existing sanitization measures significantly enhanced in order to reduce the threat of transmission. All touch surfaces are being sanitized regularly.

We have also secured an adequate supply of personal protective equipment, cleaning, and sanitizing products to ensure that the needs of all of our worksites are adequately addressed.

Promoting Good Hygiene

As always, everyone is encouraged to ensure that they are practising excellent hygiene including:

Read more about best practices regarding hygiene, and sanitization here:

CASS staff have been instructed not to attend any CASS work site if they are not feeling well and instruction has been provided on how to address the potential need for self-isolation.

In the interests of helping CASS to coordinate our staffing needs and service delivery, we are requesting that clients and staff inform their supervisor(s)/coordinator(s) if they have recently travelled outside of Canada, have plans to travel outside of Canada in the next month, or if they have reason to believe that they have been exposed to a confirmed case of COVID-19.

Modifications to CASS Operations

Effective March 13th 2020, modifications were made across all program areas.

A hiring freeze for all external applicants has been put in place. CASS will will still engage in internal hiring/transfers but at this time external applicants are not being considered due to an inability to provide required training. Exceptions will only be considered in cases where external applicants come with all required training.

At this time, all CASS programs remain operational, albeit with modifications to operations. Some of these modifications have resulted in freeing up staff so that they can be re-assigned to other program areas in order to ensure continuity of critical services. Thank you to our excellent staff for their dedication to maintaining the essential supports that we provide to clients of CASS.

Program-specific details regarding modified operations have been communicated to staff and clients in those programs.

CASS is also suspending all non-essential gatherings until further notice including but not limited to:

  • All on-site training (CPI, Abuse Awareness Training, Challenging Behaviours II, Mental Health First Aid, All in-person CAPSH training)
  • Dinner Club
  • CADO Art Class
  • Emotion Commotion Workshops
  • CAES Employment Preparedness Workshops
  • Money Matters Financial Literacy Workshops
  • Spinz-A-Round Food Distribution Program
  • CASS Advisory Committee
  • Friendships and Dating Workshops
  • All client initiated sales or gatherings at CASS worksites
  • All In-Person Committee Meetings (remote meetings can proceed as required)

In addition to the above, wherever possible, staff are being encouraged to work from home, and to meet with clients, staff, and others remotely (over the phone or via remote meeting software) rather than in person. See communications from your respective Director(s) if you are unsure if this applies to you.

Staff that operate out of the CASS Main Office remain accessible via their phone extensions and CASS reception.

CASS Administration

CASS administrative operations remain fully functional at this time.

Administration staff are being asked to work from home where possible, but may work from the CASS Main Office as required.

All Expense Claim payments will be issued via Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) in order to reduce the need for staff to come to the CASS Main Office and our reliance on Canada Post.

Additional Resources

Please see the resources below from Alberta Health Services (AHS), the Government of Alberta (GoA), the Government of Canada (GoC), and other resources.

If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact the CASS Senior Leadership Team by sending an email to

Thank you for your support.

Stay safe and healthy everyone.

2 Responses to “CASS Response to COVID-19 Pandemic”

  1. Katrina Charlton says:

    I cant lose outreach. I cant stay home for a month. Please dont shut it down. Even if me and my workers go driving around calgary to look at stuff or to get medicine or groceries or a drive through coffee. Its better than staying at home.

    • Kyle Maclean says:

      Hello Katrina,

      Thank you for sharing your concern. I promise you that any modifications being made to our service delivery is being done thoughtfully and with the goal of minimizing any disruption to the individuals we serve. We absolutely understand the importance of the services we provide and we will be doing everything in our power to continue to provide those services in a safe manner.

      If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to reach out to your Community Support Coordinator who will be better positioned to speak to your particular case.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *